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This section contains documents created from scanned original files, which are inaccessible to screen reader software. A "#" symbol is used to denote such documents.

1 Introduction
2 Bureaucracy and Decision-making in Organizations March, James. "Limited Rationality." Chapter 1 in A Primer on Decision Making: How Decisions Happen. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1994, preface, pp. 1-35. ISBN: 0029200350. (Rest of chapter optional.)
3 Bureaucracy and Decision-making in Organizations (cont.) Wilson, James Q. Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers, 1989, preface and chapters 4-6. ISBN: 0465007856.
4 Special Session: Street-level Bureaucrats: The Case of Labor Inspection Services (Guest Speaker: Professor Andrew Schrank, Department of Sociology, University of New Mexico)

Schrank, Andrew. "Professionalization and Probity in the Patrimonial State: Labor Law Enforcement in the Dominican Republic". MIT/Sloan IWER Seminar Series, 2005. (Draft paper)

———. "Labor Standards and Human Resources: A Natural Experiment in an Unlikely Laboratory." University of New Mexico, 2005. (Draft paper)

Piore, Michael P. "Labor Inspection and Regulatory Institutions." 2006. (Draft paper)

5 Bureaucracy and Decision-making in Organizations (cont.)

DiMaggio, Paul J., and Walter W. Powell, eds. "The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organization Fields." Chapter 3 in The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1991, pp. 63-82. ISBN: 0226677095.

Lawrence, Paul R., and Jay W. Lorsch. Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin Press, 1969, chapters 1 and 8, pp. 1-22, 185-203. ISBN: 0875841295.


Pfeffer, Jeffrey, and Gerald R. Salancik. The External Control of Organizations. New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1978, chapters 1, 4, and 10. ISBN: 080474789X.

Meyer, John W., and Brian Rowan. "Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure As Myth and Ceremony." In The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Edited by Walter W. Powell and Paul J. DiMaggio. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1991, pp. 54-62. ISBN: 0226677095.

6 Two Cases

Wade, Robert. "Japan, the World Bank, and the Art of Paradigm Maintenance: The East Asian Miracle in Political Perspective." New Left Review I/217 (May-June 1996): 3-36.

Tendler, Judith. Inside Foreign Aid. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975, chapters 1, 5, and 8, pp. 1-7, 54-72, and 102-110. ISBN: 0801820162. (Rest of chapter optional.)


Hirschman, Albert O. "Beyond Asymmetry: Critical Notes on Myself as a Young Man and on Some Other Old Friends." International Organization 32, no. 1 (1978): 45-50.

Goldman, Michael. "Preface," and "Producing Green Science Inside Headquarters." In Imperial Nature: The World Bank Struggles for Social Justice in the Age of Globalization. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 100-150. ISBN: 0300104081.

7 Inside Innovation in Organizations

Lester, Richard K., and Michael J. Piore. "Introduction," and "Public Space." In Innovation: The Missing Dimension. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006, chapters 1 and 6, pp. 1-12, 121-147. ISBN: 0674019946. (Chapters 4 and 5 highly recommended.)


March, James G. "Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning." Organizational Science 2 (February 1991): 71-87.

Argyris, Chris. On Organizational Learning. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. ISBN: 0631213090.

8 Professionals and Front-line Workers

Lipsky, Michael. "The Critical Role of Street-Level Bureaucrats," "The Assault on Human Services: Bureaucratic Control, Accountability, and the Fiscal Crises," and "The Broader Context of Bureaucratic Relations." In Street Level Bureaucracy, Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1980, chapters 1, 11, and 12, pp. 3-25, 159-179, and 181-191. ISBN: 0871545268.


DiIulio, John, Jr. "Principled Agents: The Cultural Bases of Behavior in a Federal Government Bureaucracy." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 4, no. 3 (1994): 277-318. (Read pp. 278-284, 314-316; rest optional).

Scully, Maureen, and Amy Segal. "Passion with an Umbrella: Grassroots Activists in the Workplace." In Research in the Sociology of Organizations. Edited by M. Lounsbury and M. J. Ventresca. Oxford, UK: JAI Press, 2002. ISBN: 1559380098.

9 Special Session: Regulatory Agencies as Street-level Bureaucracies (Guest speaker: Salo Coslovsky)

Kaufman, Herbert. The Forest Ranger: A Study in Administrative Behavior. Published for Resources for the Future. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1960. ISBN: 1933115270.

Joshi, Anu. "Public Sector Unions and Policy Reform: The Case of Joint Forest Management in West Bengal." Draft article, 2006. Centre for the Future State, Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex, Brighton, England. (Based on Roots of Change: Front Line Workers and Forest Policy Reform in West Bengal, the author's Ph.D. Dissertation. Cambridge, MA, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2000.)


Van Maanen, John. "Observations on the Making of Policemen." Human Organization 32, no. 4 (1973): 407-418.

Tendler, Judith, and Sara Freedheim. "Trust in a Rent-seeking World: Health and Government Transformed in Northeast Brazil." World Development 22, no. 12 (1994): 1771-1791.

Justice, Judith. "The Invisible Health Worker: The Peon," and "Sources of Information." In Policies, Plans and People: Culture and Health Development in Nepal. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1986, pp. 101-106. ISBN: 0520067886.

10 Mistake-making, Learning, and Problem-solving in Organizations

Chetkovich, Carol, and David Kirp. "Cases and Controversies: How Novitiates Are Trained To Be Masters of the Public Policy Universe." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 20, no. 2 (2001): 283-314.

Jain, Pankaj J., and Mick Moore. "What Makes Micro-credit Programmes Effective? Fashionable Fallacies and Workable Realities." Brighton, UK: IDS Working Paper 177, November 2002. (PDF)#


Unsworth, Sue. "Getting Better Governance: Insights from New Research." Trocaire Development Review (2006): 17-33. (This paper summarizes a longer study: Centre for the Future State (2005), Signposts to more effective states: responding to governance challenges in developing countries (Brighton: Centre for the Future State, of the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex) (PDF)#).

11 Illuminations From the Past: Two U.S. Cases

Teaford, Jon C. "Trumpeted Failures and Unheralded Triumphs," "Triumph with the Taste of Defeat," and "The Professionals." In The Unheralded Triumph: City Government in America, 1870-1900. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1984, pp. 1-14, 307-314, and 132-173 (skim). ISBN: 080183063X.

Skocpol, Theda, and Kenneth Finegold. "State Capacity and Economic Intervention in the Early New Deal." Political Science Quarterly 97, no. 2 (1982): 255-278. (A more recent and expanded version of this article can be found in: Finegold, Kenneth, and Theda Skocpol. State and Party in America's New Deal. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1995, pp. 1-152. ISBN: 0299147649.)

12 Government Contracting of Consultants and Consulting Firms

McKenna, Christopher Davis. "Introduction," "Creating the Contractor State: Consultants in the American Federal Government," and "Finding Profit in Nonprofits: the Influence of Consultants in the Third Sector." In The World's Newest Profession: Management Consulting in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006, chapters 4-5, pp. 1-7, 80-110, and 111-144. ISBN: 0521810396.

Ban, Carolyn, and Mark Huddleston. "Exporting Administrative Reform to Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: The Role of the Consultants in Technical Assistance." Paper prepared for Annual Meeting of the Association of Public Policy and Management, Washington, DC, November 1999.


Osterman, Paul. "How Common Is Workplace Transformation and Who Adopts It?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 47, no. 2 (1994): 173-188.

Argyris, Chris. Flawed Advice and the Management Trap. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 0195132866.

Micklewait, John, and Adrian Wooldridge. The Witch Doctors: Making Sense of the Management Gurus. New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group, 1996. ISBN: 0812929888.

13 Inter-agency Coordination, Redundancy, or Competition?

Landau, Martin. "Redundancy, Rationality, and the Problem of Duplication and Overlap." Public Administration Review 29 (July-August 1969): 346-358.

Tendler, Judith. "Reinventing the Projects." Chapter 2 in New Lessons from Old Projects: The Workings of Rural Development in Northeast Brazil . Washington, DC: World Bank Operations Evaluation Study, 1993, pp. xix-xxvi, 14-33. ISBN: 0821325124.

14 Inter-agency Coordination, Redundancy, or Competition? (cont.)

Weiss, Janet A. "Pathways to Cooperation among Public Agencies." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 7 (1987): 94-117.

Easterly, William. "The Cartel of Good Intentions." Foreign Policy 131 (July-August 2002): 40-50.


Chisholm, D. W. Coordination Without Hierarchy: Informal Structures in Multiorganizational Systems. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1989, chapters 1, 9, 10, pp. 1-19, 188-202. ISBN: 0520080378.

15 Corruption, Clientelism and Politicians

Scott, James S. "Corruption, Machine Politics, and Political Change." The American Political Science Review 63 (December 1969): 1142-1158.

Piattoni, Simona. "'Virtuous Clientelism': The Southern Question Resolved." Chapter 10 in Italy's 'Southern Question': Orientalism in One Country. Edited by Jane Schneider. Oxford, UK: Berg Publishers, 1998, pp. 225-245. ISBN: 1859739970.


Wade, Robert. "The Management of Irrigation Systems: How to Evoke Trust and Avoid the Prisoners' Dilemma." World Development 16, no. 4 (1988): 489-500.

Bunker, Stephan G. "Collaboration, Competition, and Corruption in Colonization Projects." In Underdeveloping the Amazon. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1988, pp. 180-198. ISBN: 5552106768.

White, Leonard D. The Jacksonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1829-1861. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1954, chapters 1, 16, 17, 28, pp. 253-260. ISBN: 0026267403. (Rest of chapter optional.)

O'Gorman, Frank. "Patronage and the Reform of the State in England, 1700-1860." In Clientelism, Interests, and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Edited by Simona Piattoni. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN: 0521804779.

Samuels, David J. "Pork Barreling Is Not Credit Claiming Or Advertising: Campaign Finance and the Sources of the Personal Vote in Brazil." The Journal of Politics 64, no. 3 (2002): 845-863.

16 Corruption, Clientelism and Politicians (cont.)

Woodall, Brian. "Introduction," and "Conclusion." In Japan under Construction: Corruption, Politics, and Public Works. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1996, pp. 1-24, 124-148. ISBN: 0520088158.

Ellwood, John, and Eric Patashnik. "In Praise of Pork." The Public Interest 110 (1993): 19-33.

17 Private vs. Public Spheres

Starr, Paul. "The Meaning of Privatization." Yale Law and Policy Review 6 (1988): 6-41.

Altshuler, Alan A., and Marc Zegans. "Innovation and Creativity: Comparisons between Public Management and Private Enterprise." Cities 7, no. 1 (1990): 16-24.


Allison, Graham. "Public and Private Management: Are They Fundamentally Alike in All Unimportant Respects?" In Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. Edited by Richard Stillman. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1988, pp. 689-718. ISBN: 0618310452.

Millward, Robert. Private and Public Enterprises in Europe: Energy, Telecommunications and Transport, 1830-1990. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN: 0521835240.

18 Private vs. Public Spheres (cont.)

Bayliss, Kate, and Tim Kessler. "Can Privatisation and Commercialisation of Public Services Help Achieve the MDGs (Millenium Development Goals)? An Assessment." International Poverty Center, UNDP (United Nations Development Program), Working Paper #22, 2006.

Warner, Mildred, and Amir Hefetz. "Privatization and the Market Structuring Role of Local Government." Paper presented at the Economic Policy Institute Conference, Washington, DC, January 11, 2001.

19 Reinventing Government, New Public Management and "Washington-consensus" Administrative Reform

Williamson, John. "What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?" The World Bank Research Observer 15, no. 2 (2000): 251-64.

Ocampo, Jose Antonio. "Beyond the Washington Consensus: What Do We Mean?" Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 27, no. 2 (2004): 293-314.

20 Reinventing Government, New Public Management and "Washington-consensus" Administrative Reform (cont.)

Kettl, Donald F., and John J. Dilulio, Jr., eds. "Learning from Public and Private Reform?" Chapter 2 in Cutting Government. A Report of the Brookings Institution's Center for Public Management. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1995, pp. 27-41. ISBN: 0815749139.

Pollitt, Christopher. "Justification by Works or by Faith? Evaluating the New Public Management." Evaluation 1, no. 2 (1995): 133-154.

21 Government, Civil Society and Nongovernment Organizations Skocpol, Theda. "Warren Durgin's Gravestone: Understanding American Civic Democracy," "How the United States Became a Civic Nation," and "From Membership to Management." In Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003, chapters 1, 2, 4, pp. 3-73, 127-175. ISBN: 0806136278.
22 Government, Civil Society and Nongovernment Organizations (cont.)

Salamon, Lester M. "Of Market Failure, Voluntary Failure, and Third-Party Government: Toward a Theory of Government-Nonprofit Relations in the Welfare State." In Shifting the Debate: Public/Private Sector Relations in the Modern Welfare State. Edited by Susan A. Ostrander and Stuart Langton. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1987, pp. 29-49. ISBN: 0887381855.

Sanyal, Bishwapriya. Cooperative Autonomy: The Dialectic of State-NGOs Relationship in Developing Countries. Geneva, Switzerland: International Institute for Labor Studies Research Series. Report No. 100, 1994.


Sanyal, Bishwapriya, and Vinit Mukhija. "Institutional Pluralism and Housing Delivery: A Case of Unforeseen Conflicts in Mumbai, India." World Development 29, no. 12 (2001): 2043-2057.

James, Estelle. "Why Do Different Countries Choose a Different Public-Private Mix of Educational Services?" JHR - The Journal of Human Resources 28, no. 3 (1993): 571-592.

Shuman, Michael H. "Why Do Progressive Foundations Give Too Little to Too Many?" The Nation, January 12/19, 1998.

Moore, Mick. "The New Private Philanthropies Could Challenge the Existing Aid Business." The Boston Review (Special issue on: Making Aid Work. A Political and Literary Forum) 31, no. 4 (2006): 11-12.

Overseas Development Institute. "The Impact of NGO Development Projects." Briefing Paper 2 (May 1996).

23 Government, Civil Society and Nongovernment Organizations (cont.)

Smith, Steven Rathgeb, and Michael Lipsky, eds. "Contracting for Services in the Welfare State" and "Services and Clients under Contracting." In Nonprofits for Hire: The Welfare State in the Age of Contracting. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995, chapters 1 and 6. ISBN: 0674626397.

Tendler, Judith. "What Ever Happened to Poverty Alleviation?" World Development 17, no. 7 (1989): 1033-1044.

24 State-society Synergies and Their Politics

Evans, Peter B. "Introduction: Development Strategies Across the Public-Private Divide," and "Government Action, Social Capital and Development: Reviewing the Evidence on Synergy." World Development 24, no. 6 (1996): 1033-1037 and 1119-1132.

Schneider, Ben Ross. "Elusive Synergy: Business-Government Relations and Development." Comparative Politics 31, no. 1 (1998): 101-122.

25 State-society Synergies and Their Politics (cont.)
26 Final Class: Wrap-up and Discussion