# Study Materials

References organized by lecture topics:

WEEK # | TOPICS | REFERENCES |
---|---|---|

1 | Introduction | |

1-2 | Analysis Techniques |
Oort, A. H. "Adequacy of the rawinsonde network for global circulation studies tested through numerical model output." Bengtsson, L., et al. "FGGE 4-dimensional data assimilation at ECMWF." Rosen, et al. "Circulation statistics derived from level lll-b and station-based analyses during FGGE." Kalnay, E., et al. "The NCEP/NCAR 40-year re-analysis project." Rabier, F., et al. "The ECMWF operational implementation of four-dimensional variational assimilation." Trenberth, K., et al. "The atmospheric energy budget and implications for surface fluxes and ocean heat transports." |

3-4 | The Angular Momentum and Kinetic Energy Budgets |
Starr, et al. "Momentum and zonal kinetic energy balance of the atmosphere from five years of hemisphere data." Starr and Gaut. "Symmetrical formulation of the zonal kinetic energy equation." Newton. "Mountain torques in the global angular momentum balance." ———. "Global angular momentum balance: earth torque and atmospheric fluxes." Newton, C. W. "Southern hemisphere general circulation in relation to global energy and momentum balance requirements." In Rosen, et al. "Variability in the annual fields of large-scale atmospheric water transport." Oort, A. H., and J. P. Peixoto. "Global angular momentum and energy balance requirements from observations." Huang, et al. "The balance of global angular momentum in a long-term atmospheric data set." |

5 | The Water Vapor Budget |
Peixoto. "Pole-to-pole water balance for the IGY from aerological data." Peixoto and Oort. "The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle and climate." In Adler, Robert F., et al. "The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979-Present)." Andersson, Erik, et al. "Assimilation and modeling of the atmospheric hydrological cycle in the ECMWF forecasting system." |

6-8 | The Heat Budget |
Haar, Vonder, and Suomi. "Measurements of the Earth's radiation budget from satellites during a 5-year period." Oort. "The observed annual cycle in the meridional transport of atmospheric energy." Oort, A. H., and E. M. Rasmusson. "Atmospheric circulation statistics." Kondratyev. "Radiation Processes in the Atmosphere." Hantel. "On the vertical eddy transports in the northern atmosphere, Part I." Stephens, et al. "Earth Radiation Budgets." Fullmer, J. W. A. "Calculations of the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity gradient from climatological data." Carissimo, Oort, and Vonder Haar. "Estimating the Meridional Energy Transports in the Atmosphere and Ocean." Ramanathan, et al. "Cloud-radiative forcing and climate: results from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment." Ardanuy, et al. "Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature." Stone and Nemet. "Baroclinic adjustment: a comparison between theory, observations, and models." Macdonald, A. M., and C. Wunsch. "An estimate of global ocean circulation and heat fluxes." Jiang, S., P. H. Stone, and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli. "An assessment of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory ocean model with coarse resolution: Annual-mean climatology." Trenberth, K. E., and J. M. Caron. "Estimates of meridional atmosphere and ocean heat transports." |

9 | Spectral Analysis |
Wiin-Nelson. "On the annual variation and spectral distribution of atmospheric energy." Saltzman. "Large-scale atmospheric energetics in the wave-number domain." Julian, et al. "On the spectral distribution of large-scale atmospheric kinetic energy." Holopainen. "An observational study of the energy balance of the stationary disturbances in the atmosphere." Solomon, A. "An observational study of the spatial and temporal scales of transient eddy sensible heat fluxes." |

10 | Forcing of the Zonal Mean Circulations |
Eliassen and Palm. "On the transfer of energy in stationary mountain waves." Charney and Drazin. "Propagation of planetary scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere." Vernekar. "On mean meridional circulations in the atmosphere." Andrews and McIntyre. "Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: the generalized Eliassen-Palm cross sections for the troposphere." Edmon, et al. "Eliassen-Palm cross sections for the troposphere." Stone and Salustri. "Generalization of the quasi-geostrophic Eliassen-Palm flux to include eddy forcing of condensation heating." |

11 | The Energy Cycle |
Lorenz. "Available potential energy and maintenance of the general circulation." Peixoto and Oort. "The annual distribution of atmospheric energy on a planetary scale." Oort and Peixoto. "The annual cycle of the energetics of the atmosphere on a planetary scale." Wiin-Nielsen and Chen. Somerville, R. C. J., et al. "The GISS Model of the Global Atmosphere." |

12 | Numerical Models |
Phillips. "The general circulation of the atmosphere: A numerical experiment." Cess, R., G. Potter, et al. "Interpretation of cloud-climate feedback as produced by 14 atmospheric general circulation models." Houghton, J., et al., eds. Boville, B., and P. Gent. "The NCAR Climate System Model, Version One." Solomon, A., and P. H. Stone. "Equilibration in an eddy-resolving model with simplified physics." Gleckler, P. "Surface energy balance errors in AGCMs: Implications for ocean-atmosphere model coupling." |