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Study Materials

References organized by lecture topics:

1 Introduction
1-2 Analysis Techniques

Oort, A. H. "Adequacy of the rawinsonde network for global circulation studies tested through numerical model output." Mon Wea Rev 106 (1978): 174-195.

Bengtsson, L., et al. "FGGE 4-dimensional data assimilation at ECMWF." Bull Amer Meteor Soc 63 (1982): 29-43.

Rosen, et al. "Circulation statistics derived from level lll-b and station-based analyses during FGGE." Mon Wea Rev 113 (1985): 65-88.

Kalnay, E., et al. "The NCEP/NCAR 40-year re-analysis project." Bull Amer Meteor Soc 77 (1996): 437-471.

Rabier, F., et al. "The ECMWF operational implementation of four-dimensional variational assimilation." Q J Roy Meteor Soc 126, Parts I to III (2000a, b, c): 1143-1190.

Trenberth, K., et al. "The atmospheric energy budget and implications for surface fluxes and ocean heat transports." Climate Dyn 17 (2001): 259-276.

3-4 The Angular Momentum and Kinetic Energy Budgets

Starr, et al. "Momentum and zonal kinetic energy balance of the atmosphere from five years of hemisphere data." Tellus 22 (1970): 251.

Starr and Gaut. "Symmetrical formulation of the zonal kinetic energy equation." Tellus 21 (1969): 185.

Newton. "Mountain torques in the global angular momentum balance." J Atmos Sci 28 (1971a): 623.

———. "Global angular momentum balance: earth torque and atmospheric fluxes." J Atmos Sci 28 (1971b): 1329.

Newton, C. W. "Southern hemisphere general circulation in relation to global energy and momentum balance requirements." In Meteorology of the Southern Hemisphere. Meteorol Monogr 13, no. 35. Amer Meteorol Soc (1971): 215-245. Boston, MA. ISSN: 00659401.

Rosen, et al. "Variability in the annual fields of large-scale atmospheric water transport." Mon Wea Rev 107 (1979): 26-37.

Oort, A. H., and J. P. Peixoto. "Global angular momentum and energy balance requirements from observations." Adv Geophys 25 (1983): 355-490.

Huang, et al. "The balance of global angular momentum in a long-term atmospheric data set." J Geophys Res 104 (1999): 2031-2040.

5 The Water Vapor Budget

Peixoto. "Pole-to-pole water balance for the IGY from aerological data." Nordic Hydrology 3 (1972): 22.

Peixoto and Oort. "The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle and climate." In Variations in the Global Water Budget. Edited by Street-Perrott, et al. D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1983, pp. 5-65.

Adler, Robert F., et al. "The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979-Present)." Journal of Hydrometeorology 4 (2003): 1147-1167.

Andersson, Erik, et al. "Assimilation and modeling of the atmospheric hydrological cycle in the ECMWF forecasting system." Bulletin of the AMS 86 (2004): 387-402.

6-8 The Heat Budget

Haar, Vonder, and Suomi. "Measurements of the Earth's radiation budget from satellites during a 5-year period." J Atmos Sci 28 (1971): 305-314.

Oort. "The observed annual cycle in the meridional transport of atmospheric energy." J Atmos Sci 28 (1971): 325-339.

Oort, A. H., and E. M. Rasmusson. "Atmospheric circulation statistics." NOAA Prof Pap 5. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 323.

Kondratyev. "Radiation Processes in the Atmosphere." W.M.O. 1972, chapters 1 and 2.

Hantel. "On the vertical eddy transports in the northern atmosphere, Part I." J Geophys Res 81 (1976): 1577.

Stephens, et al. "Earth Radiation Budgets." J Geophys Res 86 (1981): 9739.

Fullmer, J. W. A. "Calculations of the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity gradient from climatological data." J Atmos Sci 39 (1982): 1873-1877.

Carissimo, Oort, and Vonder Haar. "Estimating the Meridional Energy Transports in the Atmosphere and Ocean." J Phys Ocean 15 (1985): 82-91.

Ramanathan, et al. "Cloud-radiative forcing and climate: results from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment." Science 243 (1989): 57.

Ardanuy, et al. "Global relationships among the earth's radiation budget, cloudiness, volcanic aerosols, and surface temperature." J Climate 5 (1992): 1120-1139.

Stone and Nemet. "Baroclinic adjustment: a comparison between theory, observations, and models." J Atmos Sci 53 (1996): 1663-1674.

Macdonald, A. M., and C. Wunsch. "An estimate of global ocean circulation and heat fluxes." Nature 382 (1996): 436-439.

Jiang, S., P. H. Stone, and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli. "An assessment of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory ocean model with coarse resolution: Annual-mean climatology." J Geophys Res 104 (1999): 25, 623-25, and 645.

Trenberth, K. E., and J. M. Caron. "Estimates of meridional atmosphere and ocean heat transports." J Climate 14 (2001): 3433-3443.

9 Spectral Analysis

Wiin-Nelson. "On the annual variation and spectral distribution of atmospheric energy." Tellus 19 (1967): 540.

Saltzman. "Large-scale atmospheric energetics in the wave-number domain." Rev Geophys Sp Phys 8 (1970): 289.

Julian, et al. "On the spectral distribution of large-scale atmospheric kinetic energy." J Atmos Sci 27 (1970): 376.

Holopainen. "An observational study of the energy balance of the stationary disturbances in the atmosphere." Quart J Roy Meteor Soc 96 (1970): 626.

Solomon, A. "An observational study of the spatial and temporal scales of transient eddy sensible heat fluxes." J Climate 10 (1997): 508-520.

10 Forcing of the Zonal Mean Circulations

Eliassen and Palm. "On the transfer of energy in stationary mountain waves." Geofys Publ 22, no. 3 (1961): 1-23.

Charney and Drazin. "Propagation of planetary scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere." J Geophys Res 66 (1961): 83.

Vernekar. "On mean meridional circulations in the atmosphere." Mon Wea Rev 95 (1967): 705.

Andrews and McIntyre. "Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: the generalized Eliassen-Palm cross sections for the troposphere." J Atmos Sci 33 (1976): 2031.

Edmon, et al. "Eliassen-Palm cross sections for the troposphere." J Atmos Sci 37 (1980): 2600.

Stone and Salustri. "Generalization of the quasi-geostrophic Eliassen-Palm flux to include eddy forcing of condensation heating." J Atmos Sci 41 (1984): 3527.

11 The Energy Cycle

Lorenz. "Available potential energy and maintenance of the general circulation." Tellus 7 (1955): 157.

Peixoto and Oort. "The annual distribution of atmospheric energy on a planetary scale." J Geophys Res 79 (1974): 2149.

Oort and Peixoto. "The annual cycle of the energetics of the atmosphere on a planetary scale." J Geophys Res 79 (1974): 2705.

Wiin-Nielsen and Chen. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Energetics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 376. ISBN: 0195071271.

Somerville, R. C. J., et al. "The GISS Model of the Global Atmosphere." J Atmos Sci 31 (1974): 84-117.

12 Numerical Models

Phillips. "The general circulation of the atmosphere: A numerical experiment." Quart J Roy Meteor Soc 82 (1956): 123.

Cess, R., G. Potter, et al. "Interpretation of cloud-climate feedback as produced by 14 atmospheric general circulation models." Science 245 (1989): 513-516.

Houghton, J., et al., eds. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge, UK; New York, NY: Published for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (by) Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN: 0521807670.

Boville, B., and P. Gent. "The NCAR Climate System Model, Version One." J Climate 11 (1998): 1115-1130.

Solomon, A., and P. H. Stone. "Equilibration in an eddy-resolving model with simplified physics." J Atmos Sci 58 (2001): 561-574.

Gleckler, P. "Surface energy balance errors in AGCMs: Implications for ocean-atmosphere model coupling." Geophys Res Lett 32, L 15 (2005): 708.