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Evolution of Physical Oceanography, Bruce A. Warren and
Carl Wunsch (Editors)

Evolution of Physical Oceanography was created to mark the career of Henry M. Stommel, the leading physical oceanographer of the 20th Century and a longtime MIT faculty member. The authors of the different chapters were asked to describe the evolution of their subject over the history of physical oceanography, and to provide a survey of the state-of-the-art of their subject as of 1980. Many of the chapters in this textbook are still up-to-date descriptions of active scientific fields, and all of them are important historical records. This textbook is made available courtesy of The MIT Press.

Wunsch Evolution of Physical Oceanography Textbook Cover Art

Cover of Evolution of Physical Oceanography, edited by Bruce A. Warren and Carl Wunsch. (Image courtesy of MIT Press.)


Evolution of Physical Oceanography Textbook Components

Table of Contents (PDF)

Index (PDF)


TEXTBOOK CONTENTS FILES
Front-End Matter

Acknowledgements, Permissions, and Contributors
Information on Henry Stommel
Preface
Introduction
References
Acknowledgements, Permissions, and Contributors (PDF)
Information on Henry Stommel (PDF)
Preface (PDF)
Introduction (PDF)
References (PDF)
Part 1: General Ocean Circulation
1: Deep Circulation of the World Ocean, Bruce A. Warren, pp. 6-41

1.1 Introduction, p. 6
1.2 Historical Development of Ideas about the Deep Circulation, pp. 7-10
1.3 A Dynamical Framework, pp. 11-14
1.4 Sources of Deep Water, pp. 15-25
1.5 Deep Western Boundary Currents in the World Ocean, pp. 26-37
1.6 Why Is There a Deep Thermohaline Circulation At All?, pp. 38-39
Notes, pp. 40-41
Chapter 1 - complete (PDF - 4.4 MB)

Chapter 1 - sections:

1.1 - 1.4 (PDF - 2.6 MB)
1.5 - Notes (PDF - 1.9 MB)
2: The Water Masses of the World Ocean: Some Results of a Fine-Scale Census, L.V. Worthington, pp. 42-69

2.1 Introduction, p. 42
2.2 Methods of Describing the Oceans, p. 43
2.3 The World Water Masses As They Exist in the Second Half of This Century, pp. 44-56
2.4 The Formation of Water Masses, pp. 57-59
Appendix: Census of World-Ocean Water Masses with Division by Bivariate (C x 0/00) Classes and Rank by Volume, pp. 60-69
Chapter 2 - complete (PDF - 3.0 MB)

Chapter 2 - sections:

2.1 - 2.3 (PDF - 1.9 MB)
2.4 - Appendix (PDF - 1.2 MB)
3: On the Mid-Depth Circulation of the World Ocean, Joseph L. Reid, pp. 70-111

3.1 Introduction, p. 70
3.2 The Circulation of the Upper Waters and Their Contribution to the Mid-Depths, pp. 70-71
3.3 The Use of Geostrophy, pp. 72-73
3.4 The Mid-Depth Circulation of the Atlantic Ocean from Core Analysis and Vertical Geostrophic Shear, pp. 74-78
3.5 Studies of Total Transport and Layers, pp. 79-80
3.6 Mid-Depth Studies Using Isopycnal Analysis, pp. 81-84
3.7 Comparison of Relative Geostrophic Flow at Mid-Depth with Numerical Models of Transport, pp. 85-90
3.8 Mid-Depth Patterns in the World Ocean, pp. 91-108
3.9 Comparison of the Maps of Shear Field and Characteristics, p. 109
3.10 Conclusion, pp. 110-111
Chapter 3 - complete (PDF - 5.0 MB)

Chapter 3 - sections:

3.1 - 3.5 (PDF - 1.5 MB)
3.6 - 3.10 (PDF - 3.6 MB)
4: The Gulf Stream System, N.P. Fofonoff, pp. 112-139

4.1 Introduction, p. 112
4.2 The Gulf Stream System, p. 113
4.3 The Florida Current, pp. 113-122
4.4 The Gulf Stream, pp. 123-132
4.5 The North Atlantic Current, pp. 133-136
4.6 Summary and Conclusions, pp. 137-139
Chapter 4 - complete (PDF - 3.5 MB)

Chapter 4 - sections:

4.1 - 4.3 (PDF - 1.6 MB)
4.4 - 4.6 (PDF - 1.9 MB)
5: Dynamics of Large-Scale Ocean Circulation, George Veronis, pp. 140-183

5.1 Introduction and Summary, pp. 140-141
5.2 The Equations for Large-Scale Dynamics, pp. 142-143
5.3 The Quasi-Geostrophic Equations and the B-Plane, pp. 144-146
5.4 Ekman Layers, pp. 147-148
5.5 Steady Linear Models of the Wind-Driven Circulation, pp. 149-152
5.6 Preliminary Nonlinear Considerations, pp. 153-156
5.7 Why Does the Gulf Stream Leave the Coast?, p. 157
5.8 Thermohaline Circulation, pp. 158-163
5.9 Free Waves for a Constant-Depth Two-Layer Ocean on the B-Plane, p. 164
5.10 Effect of Bottom Topography on Quasi-Geostrophic Waves, pp. 165-168
5.11 Baroclinic Instability, pp. 169-173
5.12 Effect of Nonlinearity and Turbulence, pp. 174-182
Notes, p. 183
Chapter 5 - complete (PDF - 5.0 MB)

Chapter 5 - sections:

5.1 - 5.7 (PDF - 2.1 MB)
5.8 - Notes (PDF - 3.0 MB)
6: Equatorial Currents: Observations and Theory, Ants Leetmaa, Julian P. McCreary, Jr., and Dennis W. Moore, pp. 184-197

6.1 Introduction, p. 184
6.2 Observations, pp. 185-187
6.3 Theories, pp. 188-194
6.4 Discussion, pp. 195-197
Chapter 6 - complete (PDF - 1.5 MB)

Chapter 6 - sections:

6.1 - 6.2 (PDF)
6.3 - 6.4 (PDF - 1.1 MB)
7: On Estuarine and Continental-Shelf Circulation in the Middle Atlantic Bight, Robert C. Beardsley and William C. Boicourt, pp. 198-235

7.1 Introduction, p. 198
7.2 Estuarine Circulation in the Middle Atlantic Bight, pp. 199-206
7.3 Continental-Shelf Circulation, pp. 207-229
Appendix: Annual Air-Sea Interaction Cycles and Mean Runoff for the Middle Atlantic Bight, pp. 230-232
Notes, pp. 233-234
Chapter 7 - complete (PDF - 4.4 MB)

Chapter 7 - sections:

7.1 - 7.3 (PDF - 4.1 MB)
Appendix - Notes (PDF)
Part 2: Physical Processes in Oceanography
8: Small-Scale Mixing Processes, J.S. Turner, pp. 236-263

8.1 Introduction, p. 236
8.2 Preliminary Discussion of Various Mechanisms, pp. 237-239
8.3 Vertical Mixing in the Upper Layers of the Ocean, pp. 240-244
8.4 Mixing in the Interior of the Ocean, pp. 245-257
8.5 Mixing near the Bottom of the Ocean, pp. 258-263
Chapter 8 - complete (PDF - 3.5 MB)

Chapter 8 - sections:

8.1 - 8.3 (PDF - 1.2 MB)
8.4 - 8.5 (PDF - 2.4 MB)
9: Internal Waves and Small-Scale Processes, Walter Munk, pp. 264-291

9.1 Introduction, pp. 264-267
9.2 Layered Ocean, p. 268
9.3 Continuously Stratified Ocean, pp. 269-270
9.4 Turning Depths and Turning Latitudes, pp. 271-272
9.5 Shear, pp. 273-274
9.6 Resonant Interactions, p. 275
9.7 Breaking, pp. 276-278
9.8 Ocean Fine Structure and Microstructure, pp. 279-282
9.9 An Inconclusive Discussion, pp. 283-289
9.10 Conclusion, p. 290
Notes, pp. 290-291
Chapter 9 - complete (PDF - 2.7 MB)

Chapter 9 - sections:

9.1 - 9.6 (PDF - 1.4 MB)
9.7 - Notes (PDF - 1.5 MB)
10: Long Waves and Ocean Tides, Myrl C. Hendershott, pp. 292-341

10.1 Introduction, p. 292
10.2 Astronomical Tide-Generating Forces, pp. 293-294
10.3 Laplace's Tidal Equations (LTE) and the Long-Wave Equation, pp. 295-296
10.4 Long Waves in the Ocean, pp. 297-316
10.5 The Ocean Surface Tide, pp. 317-328
10.6 Internal Tides, pp. 329-338
10.7 Tidal Studies and the Rest of Oceanography, pp. 339-341
Chapter 10 - complete (PDF - 4.6 MB)

Chapter 10 - sections:

10.1 - 10.4 (PDF - 2.4 MB)
10.5 - 10.7 (PDF - 2.3 MB)
11: Low-Frequency Variability of the Sea, Carl Wunsch, pp. 342-275

11.1 Introduction, pp. 342-345
11.2 The Field of Variability of the Ocean, pp. 346-372
11.3 Summary and Conclusions, pp. 373-375
Chapter 11 - complete (PDF - 3.4 MB)

Chapter 11 - sections:

11.1 - 11.2 (PDF - 3.3 MB)
11.3 (PDF)
12: Some Varieties of Biological Oceanography, J.H. Steele, pp. 376-383

12.1 Introduction, p. 376
12.2 Space and Time Scales of Variation, pp. 377-378
12.3 Ecological Variations, pp. 379-380
12.4 Discussion, pp. 381-383
Chapter 12 - complete (PDF)

Chapter 12 - sections:

12.1 - 12.2 (PDF)
12.3 - 12.4 (PDF)
13: The Amplitude of Convection, Willem V.R. Malkus, pp. 384-395

13.1 Introduction, p. 384
13.2 Basic Boussinesq Description, p. 385
13.3 Initial Motions, p. 386
13.4 Quantitative Theories for High Rayleigh Number, pp. 387-388
13.5 The Amplitude of Turbulent Convection from Stability Criteria, pp. 389-394
Chapter 13 - complete (PDF - 1.0 MB)

Chapter 13 - sections:

13.1 - 13.3 (PDF)
13.4 - 13.5 (PDF)
Part 3: Techniques of Investigation
14: Ocean Instruments and Experimental Design, D. James Baker, Jr., pp. 396-433

14.1 Observations and the Impact of New Instruments, pp. 396-397
14.2 Instrument Development: Some Principles and History, pp. 398-401
14.3 Examples of Modern Ocean Instruments, pp. 402-428
14.4 Ocean Experiment Design, pp. 429-433
Chapter 14 - complete (PDF - 4.8 MB)

Chapter 14 - sections:

14.1 - 14.2 (PDF)
14.3 - 14.4 (PDF - 4.0 MB)
15: Geochemical Tracers and Ocean Circulation, W.S. Broecker, pp. 434-461

15.1 Introduction, p. 434
15.2 Water-Transport Tracers, pp. 435-447
15.3 Water-Mass Tracers, p. 448
15.4 Modeling Tracer Data, p. 448
15.5 Current Applications, p. 449
15.6 Ventilation of the Deep Sea, pp. 450-455
15.7 Ventilation of the Main Oceanic Thermocline, p. 456
15.8 Formation of Deep Waters, pp. 457-458
15.9 Vertical Mixing Rates, pp. 459-461
Chapter 15 - complete (PDF - 2.7 MB)

Chapter 15 - sections:

15.1 - 15.5 (PDF - 1.6 MB)
15.6 - 15.9 (PDF - 1.1 MB)
16: The Origin and Development of Laboratory Models and Analogues of the Ocean Circulation, Alan J. Faller, pp. 462-480

16.1 A Brief Philosophy of Laboratory Experiments, p. 462
16.2 Introduction, pp. 463-464
16.3 The Experiments of W.S. von Arx, p. 465
16.4 The SAF Model, pp. 466-467
16.5 Experiments with Rotating Covers, pp. 468-471
16.6 A Variety of Interesting Experiments, pp. 472-477
16.7 Concluding Remarks, pp. 477-480
Chapter 16 - complete (PDF - 2.1 MB)

Chapter 16 - sections:

16.1 - 16.4 (PDF)
16.5 - 16.7 (PDF - 1.4 MB)
Part 4: Ocean and Atmosphere
17: Air-Sea Interaction, H. Charnock, pp. 482-503

17.1 Introduction, p. 482
17.2 The Surface Layer, pp. 483-485
17.3 The Lower Boundary, pp. 486-489
17.4 Waves, pp. 490-494
17.5 The Atmospheric Boundary Layer, pp. 495-503
Chapter 17 - complete (PDF - 2.1 MB)

Chapter 17 - sections:

17.1 - 17.3 (PDF)
17.4 - 17.5 (PDF - 1.3 MB)
18: Oceanic Analogues of Large-Scale Atmospheric Motions, Jule G. Charney and Glenn R. Flierl, pp. 504-549

18.1 Introduction, p. 504
18.2 The General Circulation of Oceans and Atmospheres Compared, p. 505
18.3 The Transient Motions, pp. 506-507
18.4 The Geostrophic Formalism, pp. 508-519
18.5 Linear Quasi-Geostrophic Dynamics of a Stratified Ocean, pp. 520-524
18.6 Friction in Quasi-Geostrophic Systems, pp. 525-528
18.7 Nonlinear Motions, pp. 529-543
18.8 Summary Remarks, pp. 544-545
Appendix: The Quasi-Geostrophic Equations, pp. 546-547
Notes, pp. 548-549
Chapter 18 - complete (PDF - 4.8 MB)

Chapter 18 - sections:

18.1 - 18.5 (PDF - 2.4 MB)
18.6 - Notes (PDF - 2.6 MB)

 


 
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